The event as a fact of life and a fact of consciousness
In an informal way event within the framework of being identified by the indication of the crossing of a border, a violation of some established patterns. That is not all of what happened-happened, but only what goes beyond the established “order of things” receives the event status.
You could try to give a formal definition of events, with Georg Henrik von Brighton concept of the situation and call the event a significant change in the situation (Wright, 1986). Immediately, however, the question arises, what should be the extent of changes to be considered “significant”. In addition, it is intuitively clear that the same incident may be an event in one respect and not in another event, there is a significant “point and direction reference”, not only the deviation (the event is rather a vector, not a scalar). It seems that there is no event at all, and there is an event for something or someone. Geological disasters (phenomena of inorganic nature) are important events for the life on the Earth (phenomena of organic matter), for it contributed to the emergence and development, as well as to communities, as were the aftershocks of bloom and death of civilizations.
Things happen in Genesis and same for Genesis. However, although events can occur (and often occur) independently of the mind, identification of an event as event and its interpretation (by introducing the corresponding context) is the prerogative of consciousness.
Routine of life is consciousness. Only changing the world becomes a fact of consciousness. The tendency to “make the equation” constants and retention of variables is, apparently, a fundamental property of a living consciousness. We tend “not to see” the faces of familiar people but only to notice and distinguish the expressions of these persons. Attach on in the institutions entrance signs asking them not to slam doors gives only temporary effect and then becomes something of a litmus test to distinguish permanent staff from the visitors (the first clap, the second not).
Practical reason do not tend to operate with constants. If the result of a fire at a gas station ended with the conclusion that the cause of fire were: the presence of a gas station, flammable substances and free access of oxygen, there would be doubts about the competence of the investigative bodies, though their conclusion would be theoretically perfect. Constants can be entered only in the mind specially. Takes a lot of effort of a psychoanalyst in order to raise awareness for the patient as the amount of stable and permanent of his inclinations. And this bring not only itself becomes event and through the event.
The range of existence and range of consciousness can each go their course, be kept separate and not korrespondiruet with each other. A passerby walks down the street, lost in her thoughts, without being distracted by what is happening around. You want something extraordinary, what would he pay himself for his thoughts. Genesis breaks into the consciousness of the event. The event is what attracted the attention, impressed, excited and even shocked. The event raise questions and focuses on his work of consciousness up until after conceptualization-description shall not receive the interpretation-evaluation.
The interpreted event is not retained in consciousness, slipping away from him, leaving behind memories. ( does this Mean that to capture the event and after the interpretation of the events of consciousness is besometimes? Apparently, it is not. Consciousness is not occupied by the actual event, going through (chews?) the events of the past or anticipating future events. That’s why consciousness is always excited (or concerned).
On the stage of consciousness appears to an event dressed in clothing verbal (i.e. name) and having its place in space and time. The acts of naming and assigning spatial coordinates seem to be produced simultaneously, while ensuring their processes are likely to have different nature. and, accordingly, their time scales. A direct analogy with the processes of identification of the object in view here, apparently, is not quite correct, but that it gives an example that spatial localization can in principle precede categorization. However, for our purposes, no need to go into the problem of temporary breeding acts of nomination and localization, and further we will, for lack of a better word, to label them as identification. And we use this word in search of answers to the question What-Where-When. Usually this search is performed on dosnateli levels of processing what is happening is happening, and the consciousness brought to the event already named and localized in space and in time.
Spatial-temporal localization is not exhaustive of the process of “coordinating” the events, even if to mean not only physical space and time, but also “psychological time” and “psychological space” (K. Levin): events have their own socio-psychological Parallels and meridians, and their name — meaning and importance (A. N. Leont’ev). Many events, such as birth, death, marriage, change of job, natural disaster, etc. — not pose any difficulties in their identification. However, other identification is often difficult, and sometimes insoluble task.
The indicator of an event is the emotion (“emotion consciousness”), otherwise is the cause of emotions and there is an event. Not always easy to understand the reason of occurrence of certain emotional States. Sometimes we feel that the situation (“situation”) has changed, but what exactly has changed remains unclear. This creates a feeling of anxiety, forcing to continue to try to identify (to conceptualize, describe, designate) the event.
Interpretation is the search for the causes of the event (i.e., causes the causes of emotions) and possibly effects. If identification is a “delineation of events” that interpretation — the premise of this “loop” in the appropriate context.
Buedem, using terminological differentiation of Jean piaget, to name a mechanism that provides identification as a perceptual structure, and interpretation — a cognitive structure. It gives some terminological convenience: for example, the mechanism of perceptual defense seems natural to attribute to perceptual structures, and the mechanism of rationalization — to cognitive.
In favorable circumstances, identification and interpretation are the phases of situational orientations and precede the formation of the action plan. In adverse — unfolding process of experience and is the delay of action (form settings). And then the mind does not operate in the mode of orientation of action, and in the mode damping, interference and masking of events. If existence comes into consciousness event, the conscious believes it is in Genesis effect. The action is not identical with the event, many of the actions are aimed at preventing the event or mitigating their consequences, while others prepare events, or unfold to them the plan (“come on a wave of events”). However, identification and interpretation of events in any case is essential in the orientation of the action. Most, if not all, is for events and events.
But the consciousness may work not only in the orientation mode event action. An interesting case is the damping of events in the process of its interpretation. Schemas causal attribution are arranged so that most of the sources (causes) of events localize on factors inaccessible to control by the entity that takes responsibility for the latter fact. The use of such schemes dampens the interpretation of events creates the illusion of understanding and eliminates any further reflections. This “hanging on uncontrolled terminals” coupled with the relief event is another phase identification (“perceptual defense”) are the main ways to protect the mind from unwanted emotions.
Different “works” consciousness in the modes of interference and masking. Constructed (invented or provoked), or found events-competitors, preemptive or salamlama events-problems. The displacing event, as a rule, more vivid and at the same time easier to interpret.
Education as learning to interpret the events
The notorious gap between theory and practice as well as the creep of the practice, not with theory, the individual is described as “inability to apply their knowledge in practice”, which forces the learning theorists to discuss the problem of “cold” and “hot” knowledge, where the latter refers to those that are “ready to use”.
Life is filled with events and traditional system of education is characterized by event-free content and little substance events, or more precisely, it has only one type of events — exam, both in the macro and in microform (call to the Board, reference work, etc.).
The history of science is rich in events, often very dramatic, but her “fruit” is knowledge — not bear any traces of these vicissitudes. In some kind of event content can be presented with stories about these historic events. However, this does introduce an element of happening only in the context of presentation-memorization of knowledge that has very little to do with the context of remembering-usage.
Traditional learning is the answers to the questions that students are not set. In the best case — it’s brilliant answers to the questions of the teacher. At worst the answers to the questions that do not care about anyone. This is not surprising because questions are asked only about events.
Active forms (methods) of teaching is, among other things, an attempt to build event content of the learning process. External events (drawn or otherwise simulated the event) is a dummy recreating the context of remembering-usage, however, there can be found internal the events associated primarily with possible successes and failures, wins and losses. It is events of this kind create the spring razvarivaya process activity. Success, apparently, decides the success of the method of pairing of external and internal events. The so-called business games, as a rule, do not go. The analysis of the game is reduced to the invocation of the updated and advanced knowledge to inform a number of events during the game events. Here is there interpretation, but there is no identification.
In the word event there is one undercurrent values. The event is co-existence, we have a joint existence. The joint experience of what is happening is happening creates an opportunity to compare different identification and interpretation in a joint debate occurred. One thing that contributes to the expansion of the zone as perceived through the detection of an event (improvement of observation), and the explanation-understanding (the growth of resource interpretation). If you experience to understand memories of interpreted events, active forms of learning may be called a way of shaping experience. The event, of course, can be “closed” monologic interpretation (now she’s closedness to experience!). The variety of subject positions to the participants of the discussion, facilitates the clearance of interpersonal perspectives, creating an alternative ego-centric point of view, contributes to a more multilateral vision of the world. Apparently, this is what is called openness to experience.
There is another possibility of opening up the consciousness to experience the development of new languages for describing the events-taking place. A different structuring (which is guaranteed by the new language) allows to detect transitions, i.e. events, in the other, leading to increase resources for identification of events. There is something similar to that perceived when translating from one modality to another — the expansion of conscious. For example, mastering the ABC’s transactional analysis — ego States (Child-Adult-Parent), allows participants of the training group to detect a switch from one ego-state to another (identification), and then to find the causes of these transitions (interpretation of events).
The implementation of the principle of the event in socio-psychological technologies
For situations of conflict and reconciliation in communicating with parents significant differences in the content of schemes of causality observed between boys and girls. So in a situation of conflict with parents such personal characteristics as sociable, funny, beautiful, opinionated act as associated with the internal localization of the causes of the conflict. Feature responsible is related to the external localization of the causes of the conflict. In other words, beautiful, cheerful, sociable and self-confident the girl already by itself acts as a potential source of conflict with parents, while responsible girl and if conflicts with parents, for reasons beyond her control. Boys only characteristics of opinionated refers to the internal localization of the causes of the conflict. And characteristics responsible, smart, and beautiful as are associated with external localization of the causes of the conflict. In the situation of reconciliation after conflict with parents in girls responsiveness is related to the internal localization of the causes, and the friendliness with stability attributed to reasons of reconciliation. With the variability attributed to reasons connected with the characteristic self-confident. Young men, in situations where reconciliation with parents, the personal characteristics communicative, responsible and intelligent act as related to external causes attributed to localization, and feature beautiful associated with both external and changeable localization of the causes of reconciliation. That is, for boys, in the circuits of causality are mainly personal characteristics, like conflict with parents, and reconciliation, initiated more than a teenager, and external, casual circumstances. It should be noted that the analysis of the qualitative data revealed significant differences in the nature of the causes which, in the opinion of boys, or girls as the most likely cause of conflict with parents. So, in most cases, the cause of conflict is the independent behavior of late returns home, and other activities associated with separation from family and the possibility of entering into an intimate relationship. In boys, the cause of conflict with parents is almost always associated with lower school performance, and other factors that may affect social career. On the other hand, no significant differences in the content of schemes of causality between groups of subjects from different educational institutions have been identified.
In situations of success and failure in intimate and personal communication significant differences were observed neither between different schools or between boys and girls. We can assume that in this case we are dealing with individually different patterns of causality, although it is not excluded that the social categories, by reference to its norms and values, the schema of causality for high school students this type of situations in the study were not identified. However, at the level of qualitative descriptions were identified significant differences between boys and girls, expansion and elaboration of descriptions of the situation of Dating and especially the breakdown of relationships, which young men is very little developed. But these differences are rather assessed as less developed schemas of causality, rather associated with differences in psychological age and degree of development of this area of social relations.
More and more modern teenagers all over the world join informal groups. Once in a particular subculture, the teenager becomes one with it: taking all the orders and laws of the new community, he’s changing views and values.
As noted by M. V. Osorina, the children’s subculture carries out the same functions as any culture adults: it helps to solve important problems of the age of development, due to the knowledge itself, independent “invention” of the forms of development of the surrounding space as a result of the opening of the intuitive ways to satisfy their cognitive needs. Within the traditions of children’s subculture from generation to generation of children and in finished form are transferred methods of exploration of the surrounding world based on formal education and the traditions of folk education. The similarity of the challenges of development, independently from the era and culture, generates the similarity solutions encountered by participants in this process, either alone or in the company of peers. To obtain the necessary expertise every child needs to live out the same set of difficult situations collisions with the world and people that will enable it to achieve the desired degree of confidence. Therefore, in the children’s subculture there is a desire not to be controlled, to oppose the adult world, to separate, to keep secret the most important. Cultural generalization of socio-psychological experiences in the children’s community, crystallizes in two main forms: in the form of texts of children’s folklore in the form of sustainable models of ritualized behavior.
Among the reasons for the creation of special subcultures and becoming teenagers and young men in various informal group of scholars:
1)psychological: the need for friends and emotional experiences, “unrequited love”, the desire to learn unusual; interest in modern Western art, the originality of the impressions received within the subculture; the indifference to learning; inner freedom among the members of the informal group on the background of feelings of loneliness; a protest against the formalism of adults, searching for meaning of existence, etc.
2)social-pedagogical: conflicts at home or at school, academic failure, alienation from children; inactivity, neglect, abandonment, helplessness; the absence in school of an individual approach to these adolescents, lack of participation of family members, etc.
V. I. Nastin notes that the underlying field cause of the associations of adolescents in informal groups is leenalee their personality in crisis, a critical stage of its development. Liminality (from lat. limen– threshold) is an intermediate, transitional social situation of personality development in the system of social relations, characterized by the loss of former social status and gaining a new status-role position in terms of non-entry into a new social role. V. I. Nastin believes that for the qualitative development of personality must be located in Liminality, to be subjected to frustration, to experience the state of “dying” and “explosion” and the common forms and processes in liminally States are the initiation, developmental crises and suicidality. The scientist emphasizes that an adult individual for the qualitative degeneration has already developed some compensatory mechanisms to decently survive another “psychological moulting”, as the teenager need to immerse yourself in the misbehavior, in the anti-culture, otherwise he will not be able to be born as a person. The mentality of a teenager against his will must lead him through the experience of death-and-resurrection, so he easily harmful to him or her, shall be attached to drugs, commit anti-social offences, is adjudged to be in an extreme situation. Any immersion in the anti-world impact on appearance, speech, actions of a teenager that psychoanalysts consider the manifestation of trickery, role-based forms which are jesters, buffoons, mummers, fools, parties carnivals and mysteries. Therefore, the involvement of adolescents towards informal associations can be seen as an attempt to “be born again in an updated form”.
A civilized society is deprived of the Institute of adolescent initiation. Moreover, in modern Russia there is no group of core idea around which could unite the younger generation. Therefore, in the transition period, adolescents increasingly find themselves in subcultures that commonly arise as opposition to the values of wider cultural trends to which they refer (so-called marginal behaviour). Fans of the subculture can demonstrate their unity through the use of specific symbols and different appearance, style of dress, behavior, moral and/or political beliefs.
We tend to talk about the character shoes as signs and determine the fate of a person. So be understandable wedding ceremonies, associated with enough new shoes: bridesmaid shoes stolen by guests, and the groom redeems them; the groom is able to drink from a champagne bridesmaid shoes (and a sign of to, but also of saturation with life of his lady). Understandable concerns about the right place carry: forbidden to put shoes on the table (in the England of the past centuries this meant to be a wish to be hanged) and deliberately turn it on (in Turkey it would be an act of magic damage). And natural girls rites of divination through shoes about the future of marriage, described by V. A. Zhukovsky.
Shoes as gifts or as hand-created object for us in the fairy tale folklore is the form of the new destiny of a hero. Women’s shoes (or boots) are essential in such famous and memorable tales as “Cinderella” by Perrault, “Red shoes” in the version by Hans Christian Andersen, “the little match Girl” by Hans Christian Andersen, “Worn out shoes” by the brothers Grimm. In this article we will examine fairy tales “Cinderella” and “the Red shoes”, combined in an amazing way, through narrative motifs.
The motherless girl becomes a maid in the home of his stepmother and her daughters. To her, however, is her fairy godmother, glass Slippers gives and sends to the ball, with the condition that the latter will stop its dance until midnight. On the last day of the festivities Cinderella flees, losing her slipper, which the Prince finds her. All ends with a wedding.
Commonly, this tale is interpreted as a good perfectionist scenario achieving the objectives; how the plot of a good marriage, as the embodiment rewarded hard work and diligence.
Remaining a lonely orphan named Karen finds shelter with an old woman who throws away her old shoes, and instead of buying new. The old lady denies the girl the ability to show off the new shoes at Church, but she is cheating on her, and still wears them. She meets a soldier, who initiates the beginning of her endless dance in those red shoes that she can’t even remove. Can’t stop, girl loses life force and asks the executioner to chop off her legs. The rest of his life she spends a cripple in the service of others.
This tale is much more dangerous and less popular than the previous one, but her character looks antiheroine story of Cinderella, as if passing the same test, but different and wrong way. K. P. Estes, one of the few that treats this tale, assuming it was a warning from the dangerous pitfalls of the pseudo-saturation feral, starving women: opportunism, loss of a sense of proportion, the inability to stop. And we agree with this vision of the meaning of this tale. At the same time, we found it interesting to find her a new meaning in comparison with the fairy – tale counterpart, “Cinderella”.
The poor girl is an orphan: the transition
Character of both stories is a girl, obviously the marriage or premarital age, girl. She was left without a mother or have lost both parents. Such an approach tells us about the stages of initiation, which metaphor will be shown in the story. It can be typical for traditional societies to social, marital initiation of girls, which consists in choosing a partner.
Intrapsychic considered in the key, it is the stage of development of maturity of Ego, its separation from the “parent entities” and the independent decisions and actions. It is in adolescence before modern man, whether boy or girl, be challenged to build confidence in the philosophical picture of the world; empowerment; proactive initiatives; formulation of distant life goals and assume responsibility for their actions. Moreover, the process of identity formation depends on the implementation of these tasks.
Coming to us at a more Mature age, this tale once again will remind of independent step, a new worldview formation and life goals.