More and more modern teenagers all over the world join informal groups. Once in a particular subculture, the teenager becomes one with it: taking all the orders and laws of the new community, he’s changing views and values.
As noted by M. V. Osorina, the children’s subculture carries out the same functions as any culture adults: it helps to solve important problems of the age of development, due to the knowledge itself, independent “invention” of the forms of development of the surrounding space as a result of the opening of the intuitive ways to satisfy their cognitive needs. Within the traditions of children’s subculture from generation to generation of children and in finished form are transferred methods of exploration of the surrounding world based on formal education and the traditions of folk education. The similarity of the challenges of development, independently from the era and culture, generates the similarity solutions encountered by participants in this process, either alone or in the company of peers. To obtain the necessary expertise every child needs to live out the same set of difficult situations collisions with the world and people that will enable it to achieve the desired degree of confidence. Therefore, in the children’s subculture there is a desire not to be controlled, to oppose the adult world, to separate, to keep secret the most important. Cultural generalization of socio-psychological experiences in the children’s community, crystallizes in two main forms: in the form of texts of children’s folklore in the form of sustainable models of ritualized behavior.
Among the reasons for the creation of special subcultures and becoming teenagers and young men in various informal group of scholars:
1)psychological: the need for friends and emotional experiences, “unrequited love”, the desire to learn unusual; interest in modern Western art, the originality of the impressions received within the subculture; the indifference to learning; inner freedom among the members of the informal group on the background of feelings of loneliness; a protest against the formalism of adults, searching for meaning of existence, etc.
2)social-pedagogical: conflicts at home or at school, academic failure, alienation from children; inactivity, neglect, abandonment, helplessness; the absence in school of an individual approach to these adolescents, lack of participation of family members, etc.
V. I. Nastin notes that the underlying field cause of the associations of adolescents in informal groups is leenalee their personality in crisis, a critical stage of its development. Liminality (from lat. limen– threshold) is an intermediate, transitional social situation of personality development in the system of social relations, characterized by the loss of former social status and gaining a new status-role position in terms of non-entry into a new social role. V. I. Nastin believes that for the qualitative development of personality must be located in Liminality, to be subjected to frustration, to experience the state of “dying” and “explosion” and the common forms and processes in liminally States are the initiation, developmental crises and suicidality. The scientist emphasizes that an adult individual for the qualitative degeneration has already developed some compensatory mechanisms to decently survive another “psychological moulting”, as the teenager need to immerse yourself in the misbehavior, in the anti-culture, otherwise he will not be able to be born as a person. The mentality of a teenager against his will must lead him through the experience of death-and-resurrection, so he easily harmful to him or her, shall be attached to drugs, commit anti-social offences, is adjudged to be in an extreme situation. Any immersion in the anti-world impact on appearance, speech, actions of a teenager that psychoanalysts consider the manifestation of trickery, role-based forms which are jesters, buffoons, mummers, fools, parties carnivals and mysteries. Therefore, the involvement of adolescents towards informal associations can be seen as an attempt to “be born again in an updated form”.
A civilized society is deprived of the Institute of adolescent initiation. Moreover, in modern Russia there is no group of core idea around which could unite the younger generation. Therefore, in the transition period, adolescents increasingly find themselves in subcultures that commonly arise as opposition to the values of wider cultural trends to which they refer (so-called marginal behaviour). Fans of the subculture can demonstrate their unity through the use of specific symbols and different appearance, style of dress, behavior, moral and/or political beliefs.