The problem with child identity

The problem of identity, in its various aspects (dynamics, structure, types, etc.) is a major one in modern psychological science. The term “identity” in the Russian language is used infrequently and primarily in the sense of “identity”, but E. Erikson meant by identity wholeness and also continuity of personality. The formation of identity is the most important task of its development.

E. Erickson created his theory of identity, based on the clinical analysis of the variability of “I” in the neuroses. The exceptional importance of the phenomenon of identity has become clear to Erickson in the course of psychotherapeutic practice after the second world war. His patients were soldiers returning to the pursuits of peace. Bravely enduring all the hardships of war, they suffered from neuroses in their lives peacefully. Patients had the following symptoms: fear, anxiety, isolation, the loss of the ability to emotional communication. The combination of these symptoms, according to E. Erickson, was inherent in blurred identity. The cause of such complex of neurotic symptoms E. Erickson saw the changing social conditions of existence of the individual. Soldiers in the army occupied a clearly defined place in society, were included in social relationships, have a strong purpose and value system, specific abilities and personal qualities required to perform military duties. After the war, soldiers had to engage in new social relations, to find a new place in postwar society. In other words, the soldiers had to form a new identity to replace the old. The difficulties of such restructuring and caused a neurotic condition, E. Erikson as diffuse, or loss of identity.

E. Erickson explored the socio-psychological mechanisms and means of identity formation in the process of growing up human. The scientist has constructed a schema of human development, highlighting eight stages covering the whole life – from birth to old age. Its model E. Erickson based on the epigenetic principle, taken from embryology: each stage of development contains moments which are decisive for further evolution.

The identity of the subject creates a sense of stability and continuity of the self, despite the changes that occur to the human being in its growth and development, learn more on international adoption at adoption agencies blog. The transition from one form to another identity causes a crisis of identity. The first solid form of identity is formed in adolescence (E. Erickson does not emit separately adolescence). This period is characterized by the deepest crisis. This crisis draws the three lines of development: rapid physical growth and puberty; emotional instability and concern, “how do I look in the eyes of others”, “what am I”; the need to find their professional vocation that meets the acquired skills, individual abilities and demands of society.

Youth age, according to E. Erickson, is built around a crisis of identity consisting of a series of social and personal election, and identification and determination. If the youth cannot solve these problems, he formed a blurred identity, the development of which can go along four main lines:

1. psychological withdrawal from intimacy, avoidance of close interpersonal relationships;

2. the erosion of the sense of time, inability to build life plans, fear of growing up and of change;

3. the erosion of productive, creative ability, inability to mobilize their internal resources and focus on priority activities;

4. the formation of a “negative identity”, the rejection of self-determination and the choice of samples for negative behavior provided for the post by International Adoption research blogger and columnist.

The canadian researcher James Marcia in 1996 identified four stages of identity development, measured by the extent of professional, religious and political self-determination of the young man.

1. “Uncertain, vague identity” is characterized by the fact that the individual did not yet have any clear beliefs, chose a profession and not faced with a crisis of identity.

2. “Early, premature identification” occurs when an individual is involved in an appropriate system of relations, but did not do it on their own , and as a result of the experience of crisis and trials, and on the basis of foreign opinions, following someone else’s example or authority.

3. For stage of “Moratorium” is characterized by the fact that the individual is in the process of normative identity crisis, choosing from the numerous variants of development the only one who can call his own.

4. At the stage reached, “ Mature identity” crisis has been completed, the individual passed from the search itself to practical realization.

A teenager with an uncertain identity may come to the stage of the moratorium and then reach a Mature identity, but can also remain permanently at the blurred identity level or almost on the way of early identification, abandoning active choice and self-determination. Nevertheless, the concept of “Mature identity” and its criteria are ambiguous, since the peculiarities of individual development depend on many factors. Equally important for the formation of identity is the social environment. In our country, it is because a drastic change of the social situation in the last decade, broke the identity of adults, and the impact on the younger generation.

4 thoughts on “The problem with child identity

  1. Analysis of the influence of motivation should begin with analysis of the very definition of creativity and, in particular, with one of its essential characters – high social significance. This sign is present in the majority of definitions given in dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other public and popular sources. Will take the liberty to say that from the point of view of psychology it is wrong. When saving the questions arise: from what positions you can consider the creativity of the child as a developing personality, which doesn’t appear to be publicly important product and whether it is creativity as such? It is obvious that regarding accomplished scholar, composer, artist and similar categories of creators of a legitimate process to evaluate from the standpoint of the social importance of the result. But there was no idea of this importance when creating a product of creativity or the propellers were different?
    Psychologists have long proved that any basis, including creative activity, on the motives, the specific motive power that will stimulate the person, make him focus on solving the problem. The mechanism of formation of motives associated with awareness of needs, giving them personal meaning, the so-called predmatchevaya. Thus, between the high public importance of results of creative activity and the creative process are motives, then the intermediate link, which in principle is the same for held artists and children. Exploring the phenomenon creativity, this provision must be considered. Should agree with the opinion of V. N. Druzhinin, who stated that the “formation of creativity as personal characteristics in ontogeny appears first on motivational and personal, then productive (behavioral) level,” and cannot be considered the work overly simplistic.(6)
    The most important parameter of the dynamic characteristics of the individual acts of her emotional state – a set of experiences typical for the person in for every person in every salient point of life. Podrazdelyaetsya on positive and negative emotions often will significantly affect the performance, including creative, contributing to either increase or decrease activity. In addition to orientation, the influence of emotions on creativity and have a degree of their expression and content. In particular, Maslow, highlighting as a Central component of the creative the activities of emotion, interest, drew attention to the dynamics of influence of this emotion. Speaking of the two stages of creativity – primary and secondary, the psychologist believed that in the first case (at the stage of finding ideas) man is driven by the intense emotion of interest – excitement that accompanies improvisation and inspiration. At the secondary stage (the stage of materialization of ideas) power of cognitive interest is reduced; the greater the degree requires self-discipline and hard work associated with other experiences. A similar conclusion came and K.’isard-he won point, which remarked that “if the primary creativity – improvisational creativity stage is characterized by the excitation, secondary creativity, which presupposes the preparation and development of the original creation, should be characterized by a moderate level of interest”(7). Moreover, the hard work associated with bringing the creative product to the desired perfection that inevitably accompany periods of depression and fear and in such periods, the “motivational force sustained interest is crucial to overcome obstacles that stand in the way of a creative personality”(8). This is an important conclusion for teachers working with gifted children. How here not to remember N.In. Gogol lost to the descendants of the second volume of “Dead souls”!

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  2. From the point of view of pedagogical creativity important is the problem of relations of this phenomenon with other psychic phenomena. The knowledge of these relations is the basis of development of methods of development of creativity and stimulate creative activity, reveals the multidimensional nature of creativity, to penetrate to its essential meaning.
    The results of many studies from us and abroad, allow us to differentiate mental phenomena in the mechanism and the degree of their influence on the creative process for permanent, essential and temporary, situational. And if the influence of first sufficiently studied, – in the words of V. N. Druzhinina, “as commonly understood in the psychology of creativity, every manifestation of creative abilities is usually considered with certain personal qualities”(5) then on the second impact shall be mentioned.
    The specified group of phenomena represent the motives of creative activity, emotions that accompany this activity and those mental States which characterize its flow. In General they can be represented in the form of the temporal dynamic characteristics of the individual.

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  3. This view belongs to K. Gordon (1968). It actually covers several levels of self-concept, the allocation of which is subject to the same logic: the concrete level of representation (including the recognition and measurement of individual characteristics) is considered to be the source in the structure of self-concept; on its summit is the global, outcome measurement, as self-esteem.
    According to R. burns (1986) the top of the hierarchical structure of self-concept global self-concept that includes various facets of self-consciousness. The second level Self-concept form of measurement, selected by W. James – I-as-subject and I-object. The lower level presents a very specific set of plants with different modalities.
    In the structure of self-concept, Vaillant distinguishes four levels protective mechanisms: 1) psychotic; 2) immature; 3) neurotic; 4) Mature. According to his scientific views, all the protective mechanisms of the highest level have their “predecessors” for each of the underlying levels. For example, altruism refers to the “Mature technology”. His immediate “predecessor” level “neurotic mechanisms” is “reactive formation”, which, in turn, corresponds to the mechanism of “projection”, belonging to the level of “immature technology”.
    The analysis of scientific works by W. Damon and D. HART showed that they emit four levels of development of self-concept. The structure of “me” before I realized just physical, then I’m active, I’m social, and finally, the psychological “I”. the Transition to each new level is characterized by its “Central” object of consciousness. On the first level is the dominant physical self, and the description itself is limited to simple fixation individual properties without any attempt of their Association and to estimate their significance. The second level is different from the previous features a formal and substantive nature. The third level continues the integrative trend in the person’s realization of various aspects of his Ya And at this level the integration is carried out through social J. the Fourth level – all aspects of self are integrated on the system the moral beliefs of the individual.
    So, in the concept of W. Damon and D. HART the transition to each subsequent level of awareness of “me”, accompanied by changes substantial characteristics of self-concept does not mean complete loss of the underlying formations. For example, the transition to the psychological level of awareness I do not mean that I am physical, active and social I I no longer be realized. Only changing the “angle of view” under which they are being understood at a new level and degree of generality, and integration of these components of the structure of self-concept.

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  4. All of the above requirements differentiation levels should be directly connected: first, with the natural dynamics of the content of self-concept in time, the changing of phases and stages of its formation in management; secondly, with different natural measure of expansion of the operations of composition and quality of the transformation of the nuclear components of self-concept underpinning its construction, development and implementation; thirdly, the content of the operational structures of self-concept of managerial activity, which depends on their invariant component composition.
    So, theoretically, all possible differences of measures of expansion of the operational structure are the continuum formed by the extreme values of a finite set of basic components, from full expansion to maximum representation.
    Refer to the analysis of existing approaches to the allocation of structural levels of formation of self-concept of personality. V. V. Stolin (1983, 1985, 1987) defines the levels of self-concept using the levels of activity of the subject. Because of the different nature of activity and nature of the leading needs of the subject at each of these levels, the various processes and reflecting this activity, and the resulting integral formation of self-consciousness.
    In the study of I. S. Kon (1978) lower level of self-consciousness is formed of semi-structured, little conscious attitudes, which are dominated by the emotional component.

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