The problem of difficulties of adaptation of children to conditions of elementary school currently has a high relevance. Researchers estimate that depending on the type of school, from 20 to 60% of younger students have serious difficulties in adaptation to school education. Mass in the school has a significant number of children in elementary school can not cope with the curriculum and have difficulty communicating. Particularly acute problem is called before the children with mental retardation.
There are many definitions of adaptation to school. As an example of the traditional definition may lead to the definition of M. V. Maximova (1994), which the school interprets adaptation as the process of entering a child in a new social situation of development. Analysis of foreign and domestic literature shows that the term “school maladjustment” or (“school inability”) effectively determine any difficulties arising at the child in the schooling process.
Among the main primary external signs of manifestations of school disadaptation scholars unanimously attribute the difficulties in their studies and various violations of school standards of conduct, learn more on international adoption at adoption agencies blog.
The main factors that can cause school failure: shortcomings in preparing a child for school, socially-educational neglect; long and massive mental deprivation; somatic debility of the child; the disruption of the formation of school skills (dyslexia, dysgraphia); motor impairment; emotional disorders.
Under the influence of constant failures that go beyond the strictly educational activities, extending to the sphere of relationships with peers, the child develops a sense of self maliennes, there are attempts to compensate for its own failure. As well as the choice of adequate means of compensation in this age is limited, self-actualization is often performed to a different extent in conscious opposition to school norms, is being implemented in violation of discipline, high conflict, against the background of loss of interest in school gradually integrated into antisocial personality orientation. Often, these children are emerging neuropsychiatric and psychosomatic disorders (S. A. Amonashvili,1984).
School disadaptation of the child is a multifactorial phenomenon. The backlog in training due to such factors as teaching methodology, the teacher’s personality, the child’s parents, the atmosphere in the school and the classroom, place the child in the relationship with children and teachers, the personality of the child.
This factor is school failure, as the personal characteristics of the child, is also multifaceted. Researchers identify the following variables: the position of the student, motivation of the doctrine, the level of skills of mental activity, the ability to arbitrary regulation and self-organization, health level and health, the child’s intelligence. The underdevelopment and the low rate of school success is not the same thing. If the lag in development, we can say that the development of a student delays the ripening of intellectual, volitional, motivational structures in comparison with the age norm. Then as school failure can be caused by the influence of environment, methods of teaching, positions the learner and Thus, unsuccessful students are a heterogeneous group. It includes children with a variety of obstacles to learning provided for the post by International Adoption research blogger and columnist..
Personal interference can be divided into two large groups: the shortcomings of the cognitive activity; deficiencies in the development of the personality (the motivation of learning, self-organization, disharmony personality).
G. S. Labunski offers a different classification of slow learners. His classification is based on two variables: the level of cognitive independence and interest in the subject. Accordingly there are the following types of students: the average level of cognitive independence and low interest in learning (learning mostly on twos and threes); cognitive autonomy is high, interest in the subject is missing (learn very unevenly, possible “excellent” and “unsatisfactory”); cognitive autonomy is low, interest in the subject of positive (success in learning depends on confidence); cognitive autonomy is low, interest in the potential for these students is characterized by mental passivity and low self-confidence; level of cognitive independence is low, interest in the subject is absent, they study very poorly; students in this group are the lowest level of learning, are not afraid of anyone, often flaunt his disregard for the teaching in the school; to pull up these students need not only to develop their techniques of mental activity, but to generate positive motivation for training.
Entering school children with DSD has a number of specific features. In General, they have not established need for the assimilation of skills and knowledge that normally developing children usually acquire in the preschool period. In this regard, children are not able (without special assistance) to master counting, reading and writing. It is difficult for them to abide by the school rules of conduct. They have difficulties in any organization’s activities: they are not able to consistently comply with the instructions of the teacher, to switch on his order, from one job to another. Their difficulties are compounded by the weakening of their nervous system. Students with mental retardation get tired quickly, their efficiency drops, and sometimes just fail to fulfill what I have started.
These abilities suggest that mental retardation manifests itself in slow maturation of the emotional – volitional sphere and in the maturation of cognitive processes, learn more on aspects of international adoption programs. Last, above all, is manifested in the fact that the intellectual capabilities of the child do not correspond to his age. Considerable originality is different the behavior of these children. After school they continue to behave like preschoolers. The leading activity is game. The children are not there is a positive attitude to school. Learning motivation is absent or weakly expressed.
It is important to note that in the conditions of mass school child with DSD for the first time begins to be acutely aware of their inadequacy, which is expressed primarily in failure. This is on the one hand, leads to feelings of inferiority and attempts personal compensation in any other field. Such attempts are sometimes expressed in various violations of conduct.