Child needs in pedagogical and medical treatment

The development of children with organic lesions of the Central nervous system always differs from the development of his peers. It raises many questions among parents and educators, as in some cases individual functions correspond to the age or even slightly ahead, while others developed much worse than the norm. This creates a kind of “mosaic” pattern of development and can produce the impression of disobedience or bad manners, child. Therefore, the task of the psychologist is to identify, whether behind the facade of “inattention”, “stubbornness”, “pampering” the symptoms of organic brain brain, and therefore whether the child needs in pedagogical and medical treatment.
Damaged mental development – the development of the child’s mind with organic lesions of the Central nervous system. To impaired development may include such conditions as minimal brain dysfunction, impaired hemispheric interaction, local brain lesions (such as speech areas of the cortex), epilepsy, progressive organic lesions of the Central nervous system.
Minimal brain dysfunction – biologically due to failure of the functions of the nervous system, resulting in slight disorders of behavior and reduced learning ability.
The causes of this dysfunction – different hazard transferred in utero (toxemia, infectious diseases, maternal alcohol intoxication in the later stages of pregnancy), injuries during birth, diseases during the first three years of life. As a result of these effects occur more or less local brain lesions in cortical or subcortical areas. Manifestations of minimal brain dysfunction are diverse and depend on the localization of damage. Most often marked delays and abnormalities in the development of motor skills: clumsiness, tics, grimacing motor disinhibition or increased slowness, and sleep disturbance, irritability, lack of control of behavior.
In the further development of the child with minimal dysfunction, a gradual compensation of existing violations. Under favorable system of education, training, and treatment to adolescence are smoothed before the available symptoms, and to detect residual effects of organic lesions is possible only when a special neuropsychological and electroencephalographic study provided for the post by International Adoption research blogger and columnist. However, when attaching other additional factors (injury, surgery, physical illness, overwork, unfavorable social situation of development) minimal brain dysfunction can lead to the development of a number of diseases: epilepsy, psychopathy, insolvency speech system, the emergence of neurosis-like disorders. In this regard, an important task is the identification of children with organic lesions of the Central nervous system and monitoring the child’s development of specialists: neurologist, psychologist, speech therapist.
Under normal pathopsychological examination of children with minimal brain dysfunction, Cerebro-asthenic conditions noted exhaustion of mental processes, impaired volume and concentration, failure of mechanical memorization. There is a significant difference in the level of achievement when performing various intellectual tests. This uneven level of achievement serves as the criterion of differentiation of organic lesions of the Central nervous system from mental retardation. Marked emotional lability, high sensitivity to the evaluation of the experimenter.
In some forms of organic lesions of the Central nervous system are more likely to have mental processes (memory, attention) and personal development remains within the borders of age norm. These children felt their inadequacy, they have secondary disorders: stuttering, tics, anxiety, sleep disorders and appetite. Low self-esteem, the child clearly differentiates the attitude of the significant.
Other lesions occurs predominantly developmental disorders of emotional-volitional mechanisms, the formation of the psychopathic syndrome, learn more on aspects of international adoption programs. This is reflected in increased excitability, mental instability, defensiveness. In the survey noted lack of criticality to his achievements, external locus of control, often inflated or undifferentiated self-esteem. From children and adolescents with psychopathy this group distinguishes the mental processes, the uneven decrease of intelligence. The results of neuropsychological examination of a child allows to identify the precise localization of organic brain lesions. Especially, it is desirable to conduct such a survey in children after injuries of the skull, concussions of the brain.
Interhemispheric dysfunction – a breach of one of the hemispheres of the brain or lack of collaboration between them.
The uneven development of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres can also be attributed to impaired mental development. The child with the predominant development of the functions of the right hemisphere (in some cases this is accompanied by left-handedness) has a unique perception of the world. These children dominates visual-figurative thinking and perception; at the same time, logical relations, abstract schemas are assimilated much worse. In Junior high it leads to difficulties in learning mathematics, lack of understanding of the lexico-grammatical analysis of sentences, learn more on International Adoption Ukraine share you views and experiences.
When pathopsychological examination of children with dominance of the right hemisphere there has been no violations from the health, attention and memory, eidetic visual memory(100% capturing pictures with all the details). The levels of achievements in the implementation of intellectual tests uneven: high achievements in the implementation of “Cubes of CEP”, “Matrices Raven” combined with the difficulty in execution of verbal analogies, the definition of concepts. If you ask a child about his way of thinking, it turns out that are not merely “speech” and “the vision pictures”. In this way, the search for General patterns is carried out with difficulty.
Children with left-handedness need a slightly different approach when teaching reading and writing. Much more successful learning occurs when visual memorization of whole short words, accompanied by a picture.
In children with dominance of the right hemisphere is particularly sensitive for regular training programs in the first school grades, for them it is desirable to maximize the visual learning tools, encouraging to draw separate schematic illustration when solving mathematical problems.
With the dominance of the left hemisphere marked lack of success in the implementation of graphic samples, tasks that require visual analysis and synthesis. It is well developed, disorders of reading and writing in milder forms it is not marked. There may be some underdevelopment of emotional perception, weakness of empathy. Logic thinking is not impaired.
With more severe lesions of the brain have specific speech disorders, writing and reading, preventing schooling.
During psychological treatment, it is desirable to pay attention to the outward expression of emotions, recognition of emotional States of others, understanding of the logic behind their feelings and actions. The positive impact of listening to music and a reflection of the state of music in the picture. Significant difficulties in children of this type occur in adolescence, they often prefer to “talk” to the computer rather than with their peers. Trainings of communication, empathy will help reduce the manifestations of hemispheric dysfunction.

6 thoughts on “Child needs in pedagogical and medical treatment

  1. More important in this period is friendship. Friends and girlfriends are also selected independently, and in relationships, you select master or slave role, competent or naive, nursing or consumer group member or couple. So build a model not only behavior, but the relation to oneself, a kind of self-description, the sources of which are the views of enemies and friends, loved ones or world-wide public opinion. It is no accident in this period is particularly important ideals of friendship and loyalty: they follow, they are also subjected to checks. This becomes the experience of the relationship later in life, and also part of the “I-concept”, internal image of ourselves.

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  2. E. Erickson emphasizes, as do other researchers, that the ego-identity, puberty is not just “the sum of childhood identifications”. This is the experience of integration of the different roles and identities, designed in the voltage of libido. It is already established to a certain extent the existing set of abilities and social skills. A sense of identity in this system have accumulated confidence in their internal identity and continuity (a continuous image of I), which is confirmed by the external social environment.

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  3. Social psychologists H. Cooley and j. The foreign office, it was determined that “I” is always included in a whole “we” and the society, on one side is the sum of behaviors of its constituent members, with another – imposes social constraints on individual behavior. Because beliefs about isolated and independent ego is an illusion. There is a predetermination of human development depending on its social environment, though starting from a very early age. Moreover, what is important is subjectively interpreted feedback: “how I see myself as” closely connected or even similar content with “how do others see me”. So the idea of “mirror Me”, the presentation of the individual about how others evaluate him, usually some kind of primary group, it is part of and whose opinion is perceived as the voice of the “generalized Other”. “Mirror Me” was considered part of “self-concept” person. And the unification of evaluation representations “generalized other” was identified as the main source of formation of “self – concept” and internal regulation of behavior of the individual.

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  4. The danger of this stage in the framework of the theory of E. Erickson consists in mixing the roles. With strong doubts about your own identity, delinquent and frequent psychotic episodes. The problem may be the failure to establish a professional (social) identity. To save themselves from collapse, they temporarily sverigelotteriet (to externally complete loss of identity) public heroes. Establishing one’s identity is manifested through the other, or the Union with another individual or group. In this case, is overvalued and group identity: because teenagers are so prone to reject “outsiders”.

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  5. E. Erickson offered his age periodization of human life, similar to the concept of “Calls and Responses”. Adolescence and early youth he perceives as a challenge to the “Identity vs. role confusion”. Your childhood ends with the establishment of a sufficiently functional relationship with the world of skills and tools. But E. Erickson also notes that previous childhood experience suddenly ceases to satisfy the individual. Happen biological, psychological, and social changes. In search of a new sense of identity and continual teenagers have to rethink past experiences and reinstall new boundaries, albeit at the cost of sacrifices of relationships with loved ones. New idols and ideals have become for them “the guardians of a final identity.” Adolescent mind, according to E. Erickson, is essentially a mind of moratorium — a psychological stage between childhood and adulthood, between the morality learned by the child already, and ethics, which has yet to develop to the adult.

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  6. The fundamental theoretical basis for interdisciplinary studies of the problems of development and identity formation is the social essence of man. Personality crystallizes in psychological structure of social relations.
    The involvement of the individual in social relationships leads to the thesis of the primacy of social interaction in this process.
    Due to the huge defining role of communication in the development and formation of personality, in our science in recent years showed a keen interest in its study, which in turn has spawned a large number of approaches to the problem of communication in philosophy, sociology, social psychology.
    Common methodological approaches to the problem of communication in psychology is that they all share a principled stance about the unity of communication and activity. The nature of this unity is understood in different ways.
    There is a very productive attempt to integrate different social psychological approaches to communication within a single concept. G. M. Andreeva, describing the communication identified in it, three parties are interconnected:
    communicative (exchange of information between communicating);
    interactive (interaction between communicating);
    perceptual (perception process each other partners and the establishment on this basis of mutual understanding).

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